Although each person has his or her own digestive rhythm, difficult, infrequent bowel movements (fewer than twice a week) producing smaller quantities of stool, as well as a feeling of incomplete bowel evacuation and bloating, can in most cases be labelled chronic constipation. The most common form is known as chronic habitual constipation, which means that digestion is out of order without any clear causes or organic illnesses. It usually begins in one’s early years as a result of poor nutritional habits and inadequate physical activity. It is an unpleasant condition that affects more than half the people in the developed world, and it becomes more frequent in the third period of life. In this case, constipation is not an illness, but a civilisation disease.
Possible causes of constipation include:
- Inadequate or poor diet
- Lack of physical activity
- Certain psychological or personality traits, such as bitterness, phlegmatic personality, thriftiness, compulsive perfectionism, sadness, etc.
- Frequent laxative use which deprives the body of potassium, which in turn leads to laziness, nausea and intestinal insensitivity One consequence of constipation is diverticulosis (small pouches in the intestines), which can lead to inflammation, bleeding and even cancer of the large intestine
- Other causes (problems with thyroid functions, diabetes, hormonal changes, some medicines, etc.)
Because of its hyperosmolarity, Donat Mg is a natural osmotic laxative. It can be classified as a saline laxative. Its effectiveness as a laxative stems from the fact that it contains sulphate salts (Mg-sulphate – epsom salt and Na-sulphate – Glauber’s salt) and around 1000 mg/l of magnesium. Because of the sulphate ions, which affect the mucus lining of the gastrointestinal tract by causing a stretching sensation and increasing the volume of content, hormone release also occurs, which in turn has an effect on the kidneys, bladder and pancreas.
Through osmosis, Donat Mg draws water from the cells of the intestinal wall, increasing the volume of intestinal content 3 to 5 times; the increased content pushes on the intestinal wall and triggers its peristalsis or movement. For its part, magnesium additionally stimulates the intestinal hormones that boost peristalsis.
Donat Mg can be successfully used to prepare patients for colonoscopy or irrigography and to cleanse the bowels prior to surgery.
Why do we recommend Donat Mg?
- The body doesn’t develop a tolerance to it.
- It always works.
- It is a natural laxative.
Possible side effects:
If consumed in excessive quantities, diarrhoea may occur. It will stop if drinking stops.
How do we drink Donat Mg for constipation?
Drink half a litre or more warm (30–37 °C) or at room temperature in the morning on an empty stomach. It is important that it be drunk at once or relatively fast. This way we trigger spontaneous evacuation. Additionally, we can also drink 0.2-0.3 dl in the evening before bed.
Do not drink it cold straight out of the refrigerator!
IMPORTANT TIPS: When heated to body temperature, Donat Mg loses its carbon dioxide; in other words, it turns into a gas at this temperature. That is why it should always be drunk warm. You can also degas it by letting a glass of water sit at room temperature and stirring it multiple times. This is important if you are drinking it during the day or in the evening before bed.
Heartburn occurs as the result of the increased secretion of stomach acid; we experience it as pain in the upper stomach or sometimes in the oesophagus. It’s a problem that one out of ten people are forced to deal with; it is more frequent in older people, men and pregnant women. Because the oesophageal lining has a different composition than the stomach lining and is therefore less protected, it can be damaged by acid. The recurring, frequent and extended reflux of acid into the oesophagus may lead to serious problems, and in some cases even cancer. That is why it is important that we watch our weight, sleep with our heads elevated, properly chew our food and eat slowly and in multiple smaller portions. It is important that we drink at least 2 litres of water a day. In short, it is urgent that we change our lifestyle and avoid certain foods and drinks as well alcohol, cigarettes and psychological strain.
The stomach makes 2 to 3 litres of acidic fluids each day. These consist mostly of chlorocarbonic acid and pepsin (an enzyme that speeds up the metabolisation of proteins). Just one half litre of Donat Mg has a buffer effect adequate for neutralising the acid secreted by the stomach in one day.
This is made possible by its unique composition, including 7700 mg of hydrogen carbonate, which has a great capacity for bonding acids and buffering free acids. It bonds stomach acid in equal amounts.
This is why Donat Mg can serve as a complete and natural substitute for treatments for excess stomach acid.
Donat Mg is a natural mineral water that acts in a way that harmonises bodily processes – it also helps with stomach secretion problems caused by an acid deficiency.
Donat Mg helps a number of people suffering from dyspeptic disorders for which a clear cause cannot be found, even with a gastroscopy. These people often experience an unpleasant feeling of fullness after meals, bloating, heartburn or belching.
With their alkali effect, sodium-hydrogen carbonate waters have an anti-inflammatory effect on the stomach lining. The magnesium and calcium found alongside the sodium in Donat Mg assist greatly in these processes and reduce the swelling of the stomach lining.
Magnesium acts to prevent contractions in the stomach, improves peristalsis and the stopping function of the cardia (the muscle at the upper opening of the stomach) and speeds up cell regeneration. It is also a building block of the fast-regenerating cells of the stomach lining.
How do we drink it?
People suffering from stomach or gall bladder problems or illnesses of the liver and stomach lining are best served by drinking a part of it lukewarm in the morning and the rest throughout the day, cold or at room temperature. For the problems described above, it is drunk in smaller quantities (1-2 dl) a half hour before meals and also during meals.
In the case of heartburn, it is important that it be drunk over an extended period, and that small quantities be drunk multiple times throughout the day.
Donat Mg will serve us well if we’ve “splurged” by eating a very heavy meal or drinking overly strong coffee or hard liquor. Coffee, hard liquor and heavy meals irritate the stomach lining, and this can be avoided by drinking Donat Mg.
Recommendation: After every cup of coffee, alcoholic beverage or hearty meal, drink 1 dl of Donat Mg.
Drinking Donat Mg does us a lot of good after a wild night out. The hangover we experience in the morning will be relieved or will even go away.
The high content of hydrogen carbonate ions in one litre of Donat Mg (7700 mg) has the ability to bond free acids, establish acid–base homeostasis in the body and create a base excess. Nausea, headaches, stomach acid and an unpleasant feeling in the stomach will soon disappear.
Sulphates in the form of sodium or magnesium salts have a favourable effect on digestion and aid in removing the last traces of toxins from the body.
Magnesium helps regenerate cells in the stomach and liver – it is an important element for growth and tissue revitalisation.
One half litre before bed and one half litre in the morning on an empty stomach. Besides Donat Mg, you should also drink plenty of regular water, as alcohol greatly dehydrates the body.
The number of people affected by gall stones is on the rise. One important factor is high-calorie, greasy foods. Gall stones are characteristic of Europeans, Americans and Scandinavians; they are rare in other parts of the world, particularly among Asian nations.
Donat Mg is beneficial to those suffering from gall stones. It causes the contraction and evacuation of the gall bladder and speeds up bile excretion.
The bile of those who have undergone surgery due to stones contains too much cholesterol and too few bile acids and lectins. Increased cholesterol levels are also characteristic of people with excess body weight.
In the gallbladder, bile is concentrated 4 to 10 times through the absorption of water and salts by the gallbladder lining. There are 200 to 300 ml of bile in the gallbladder. The magnesium sulphate found in Donat Mg affects the contraction of the gall bladder and at the same time relaxes the sphincter at the neck of the cystic duct, thereby pushing bile out through the duct and into the duodenum. Regular evacuation of the gallbladder thus prevents the formation of gall stones.
Drink 0.5 l of lukewarm Donat Mg in the morning on an empty stomach.
DONAT Mg does not break down gall stones; it prevents their formation.
Magnesium reduces the toxicity of a number of substances in the liver. We also recommend Donat Mg for liver disorders, particularly for fatty liver disease and also for treating alcoholism. A lack of magnesium is characteristic of alcoholics, and Donat Mg is rich in magnesium.
A healthy, balanced diet is key to maintaining bodily and mental health and enables us to remain vital well into old age. Food of this kind contains energy (proteins, carbohydrates, fats) and non-energy (minerals, vitamins, fibres) matter in quantities and proportions adequate for the proper functioning of all bodily functions.
Obesity is on the rise and constitutes a growing threat to the health of people in both the developed and undeveloped world. In Slovenia, 54% of adults aged 25 to 64 have an excessive diet, and an alarming 15% of all people are obese.
Excess body weight is most common in northeast and southeast Slovenia and less common in the Primorska region. Obesity is more frequent among members of lower social classes. It is also occurring more frequently among children and adolescents.
Obesity is characterised by the accumulation of fat in the body. It leads to problems with digestive processes and the increased occurrence of a number of illnesses; it shortens life span and, consequently, diminishes the quality of life. In parallel with the rise in obesity, the number of people with type 2 diabetes is growing. Obesity is also an important risk factor in cardiovascular diseases; it is linked to the more frequent occurrence of heart failure, high blood pressure, gallstones, respiratory problems, skeletal diseases and certain types of cancer.
It is taking on the dimensions of an epidemic in the developed world and becoming an increasingly alarming medical and socio-economic issue.
In rare cases the cause of obesity can be traced to disease or the use of certain medicines which increase the appetite and reduce energy use.
In most cases, only a predisposition for obesity is inherited; it is environmental factors that ultimately determine how this predisposition plays out. The influence of our environment, our eating habits and our attitude towards ourselves plays an important role in the onset of obesity. Some psychological factors, such as stress, unvented frustration, a feeling of inner emptiness and a lack of love may contribute to overeating. Additional factors, such as a lack of information and low social status, are not to be overlooked.
A healthy, balanced diet, daily recommendations:
- A suitable number of meals, at least 5, 6 is also good
- Proportions of different types of food: proteins 20-30%, fats 15-20%, carbohydrates 55-60%
- Number of calories consumed in daily meals: breakfast and a morning snack should make up 40%, lunch and an afternoon snack 40%, and dinner 20% of our daily recommended calories
Glycaemic index (GI), glycaemic load
Two terms are used to describe the spike in glucose that occurs after a meal: gylcaemic index and glycaemic load.
The glycaemic index (GI) classifies individual foods on a scale of 0 to 100. This number tells us the degree to which an individual food will directly affect a change in the level of blood sugar once it has been consumed. A higher glycaemic index means a greater rise in blood sugar. Foods with a high glycaemic index cause a rapid rise in blood sugar, followed by a rapid drop, which is why we feel hungry soon after eating foods of this kind. Foods with a low glycaemic index slowly raise the blood sugar level and give a longer-lasting feeling of fullness.
The following factors affect the concentration of glucose following a meal: type of carbohydrates, proportions of carbohydrates and fats in the meal, how the meal was cooked, the time, temperature, maturity and degree of processing of carbohydrates, etc.
The glycaemic load applies to the food or meal as a whole. It is calculated by multiplying the glycaemic index of an ingredient in the food by the quantity of the ingredient. All ingredients of the meal must be taken into account.
Many times, we pursue weight loss on our own, turning to various (more often than not) one-sided diets with fancy-sounding names. Most of the time we’re not successful, as the kilograms we made great efforts to shed make a quick return.
Sound weight loss plans are based on:
- Proper selection and preparation of foods
- Saying no to certain foods
- Changing our eating habits
- Psychological support (family, friends, experts)
Recommended foods: foods with a low glycaemic index, all fat-free meats, wholegrain (unprocessed, nondehulled) starches (breads, pasta, rice), fruit, vegetables, low-fat fermented dairy products, etc. Drinks should be unsweetened. You should drink 2-3 litres of water each day. When losing weight, fats and proteins break down into acids, and the body loses important minerals. Donat Mg natural mineral water neutralises acids formed in this way and replaces the lost minerals. It is a natural laxative and is very beneficial when we begin losing weight because it cleanses the body of leftover toxins and waste products and helps establish the acid–base homeostasis, relieving the body of metabolites. Because it is rich in sulphate salts, which increase cholecystokinin secretion, regular drinking reduces appetite. Sulphates are also known to prevent the absorption of lipids and help evacuate the gall bladder. The wealth of magnesium found in Donat Mg natural mineral water speeds up metabolism, boosts immunity and increases stores of energy. In combination with physical activity, it protects the heart, arteries and muscles. Experience has shown a combination of diet and physical activity to be effective in reducing body weight. Physical activity improves physical endurance, increases muscle mass, regulates blood pressure, lowers lipid and glucose levels and fills us with a sense of optimism.
The intensity, duration and type of diet and physical activity should be determined by a doctor following a detailed physical examination and tests.
Body mass index – BMI
Excess body weight and obesity are most commonly expressed as an increased body mass index (BMI = body weight in kg/ (body height)2). This figure gives a good idea of the amount of fat tissue in the body, but tells us nothing about the distribution of fat. Using the BMI, different degrees of obesity have been outlined (see table below).
In accordance with the World Health Organisation’s criteria, the BMI is used to define conditions of weight excess:
|Normal body weight
||18,5 - 24.9
||25,0 - 29,9
|Obesity (Class I)
||30,0 - 34,9
|Obesity (Class II)
||35,0 - 39,9
|Very severe obesity (Class III)
In defining obesity, for the most part two parameters are used:
- Body mass index
- Waist circumference
Waist circumference is usually measured by running a measuring tape around the stomach at the navel. Here we need to be careful not to pull the measuring tape too tight or give too much slack. Increased waist circumference is a very important parameter because it provides the best expression of so-called visceral obesity. A waist circumference of less than 80 cm in women or less than 94 cm in men is desirable.
Estimates state that there are already around 150,000 diabetics in Slovenia.
In its guidelines, the American Diabetes Association gave its opinion that a deficiency of magnesium and certain other elements is more frequent in diabetics than among healthy people. Available data seems to indicate that the preventive consumption of magnesium prevents the occurrence of health issues. In 1999, the American medical Journal The Archives of Internal Medicine published a study which claimed that reduced magnesium intake through food could cause diabetes in at-risk persons.
A magnesium deficiency in diabetics can be successfully made up for by drinking natural mineral water containing magnesium. Magnesium is important for the body’s glucose balance. Magnesium has the role of a second messenger for the effectiveness of insulin. Insulin, in turn, has an important effect on the accumulation of magnesium within cells. Reduced concentration of magnesium within the cell could be a factor in the reduced functioning of insulin, that is, in increased resistance to insulin, which occurs in type 2 diabetics. The regular replacement of magnesium probably contributes to improved functioning of beta cells in the pancreas and increases the response to insulin.
In 1986, at the Second European Congress on Magnesium in Stockholm, the Rogaška Slatina medical staff presented the results of a study on the effects of drinking Donat Mg for 16 days (7 dl a day) on the concentration of magnesium and on blood sugar, cholesterol and uric acid levels in persons with diabetes, persons with peptic ulcer disease and a control group of healthy subjects. A statistically significant increase in concentrations of magnesium was observed in persons suffering from diabetes and peptic ulcer disease. The fall in blood sugar in persons with diabetes was also statistically significant, and in the case of 12 of the 70 diabetics included in the study, medicamentous therapy was scaled back.
A statistically significant reduction in cholesterol was also observed after drinking Donat Mg, from an average value of 7.19 mmol/l to 5.96 mmol/l. Reduced uric acid levels were also observed, but the change was not statistically significant.
Magnesium deficiency has been proven to accelerate the formation of oxygen metabolites (free radicals). This indirectly leads to increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, which obstructs the functioning of insulin. With hypomagnesaemia (magnesium deficiency), cells lose potassium and sodium, while calcium accumulates, triggering negative metabolic pathways. The impaired functioning of certain important membrane enzymes also occurs. This is linked to late-stage complications in diabetics such as retinopathy and nephropathy.
Hyperglycaemia causes, among other things, the excess excretion of magnesium through the kidneys, from which it follows that deficiencies are more pronounced in diabetics who do not lead an adequate lifestyle. The deficiency is thought to be proportionate to the level of glycated haemoglobin.
Many diabetics suffering from hypertension (high blood pressure) or heart failure use diuretics which increase the excretion of magnesium. It is not clear how many diabetics suffer from a magnesium deficiency. Assessing the concentration in the serum does not give an accurate picture; levels in the erythrocytes must be assessed because magnesium accounts for only 1% of the serum.
Does magnesium help with every type of diabetes?
NO. Magnesium helps persons suffering from type 2 diabetes and pregnant women who have been diagnosed with diabetes for the first time.
There are two basic types of diabetes:
- Type 1: Type 1 diabetes occurs in childhood and in younger people whose stomach lining (beta cells) does not produce insulin. These persons must use insulin to replace the natural insulin their bodies lack.
- Type 2: Type 2 diabetes occurs in over 90% of those diagnosed with diabetes. It can be prevented or relieved and kept well under control through a suitable lifestyle and by caring for one’s health.
If you have this type of diabetes and you’re “a little full around the waist”, it means that pancreatic islets for the most part do a good job producing and secreting insulin; the problem occurs in peripheral tissues – stores of fat, muscles and the liver. These tissues are the main producers of energy (which is formed from sugar) for your body. Insulin, which occurs normally in your body, cannot penetrate into these tissues. This obstructs the flow of sugar to the blood and, consequently, its further processing. This leads to an increased amount of sugar in the blood, which is harmful to your health and also leaves you without energy.
The blocked periphery and increased blood sugar that occur in type 2 diabetes constantly stimulate the pancreatic islets to secrete even more insulin. The pancreas thus exhausts itself and over time produces less and less insulin.
Besides magnesium, Donat Mg also contains a large amount of sulphate; sulphate waters are characterised by the fact that they stimulate the functioning of the pancreas, digestion and the gall bladder, the evacuation of the gall bladder and the cleansing of bile ducts. Hydrogen carbonate also plays an important role. It sees to adequate acid–base homeostasis in your body.
In combination with a healthy diet, watching your weight and getting a lot of exercise, Donat Mg is an excellent supplement that can contribute to an improved diabetic condition.
Drink 1 to 2 dl lukewarm in the morning on an empty stomach and before every meal.
Kidney stones are a common condition. 10% of people experience them at least once in their lifetime. They are formed when a high concentration of calcium, oxalate and uric acid occurs in the urine, and can also be caused by a lack of water in the kidneys and a lack of citrate.
Causes of kidney stones include:
- Oversaturation of the urine with substances that form kidney stones (a high concentration of promoters: calcium, oxalates, urates, low or high pH, low diuresis (concentrated urine)); infections; urine flow disorders;
- a low concentration of inhibitors: magnesium, citrates, pyrophosphates, acid mucopolysaccharides, ribonucleic acid,
- the inhibition potential of urine, which prevents crystallisation;
- microparticle retention.
One symptom of kidney stones is severe liver pain that occurs in intervals and that can also be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, a burning sensation during urination, and/or blood in the urine. High body temperature and infection may also occur. When possible, it is recommended that a chemical analysis of the stones be conducted; treatment can then be specifically targeted. Smaller stones less than 5 mm in size are usually passed through the urine, while larger stones need to be removed using one of several different methods.
The recurrence of kidney stones is very frequent. Some data show that they recur within 2-3 years in 40% of those who experience them and within 10 years in 70% of those who experience them; after 20 years, nearly all people who have experienced kidney stones will experience them again.
Types of kidney stones:
- Calcium kidney stones occur on average in 85% of those who experience kidney stones. These stones can be oxalate or phosphate. Oxalate stones are much more common. Calcium phosphate kidney stones occur in people with metabolic or hormonal disorders.
- Urinary kidney stones are more common among men.
- Struvite kidney stones are more common among women and may be accompanied by infection.
- Cystine kidney stones are rare and are linked to hereditary disorders in which changes in the absorption of cysteine and other amino acids occur.
One characteristic of natural mineral waters with high levels of hydrogen carbonate is that they help prevent certain types of stones: calcium oxalate stones, urinary stones and cystine stones.
Owing to the exceptionally high hydrogen carbonate and magnesium content in 1 litre of Donat Mg mineral water, this water is considered a natural means for preventing the occurrence of the following types of kidney stones: calcium oxalate stones, urinary stones and cystine stones.
The infusion of magnesium sulphates is known to bring about a noticeable increase in the amount of magnesium excreted through the urine. More magnesium in the urine impedes the formation and growth of oxalate stones, which are nearly as common as diabetes among the populations of industrially developed countries, if not more so.
Hydrogen carbonate is known for its great ability to bond with acids and regulate acid/base homeostasis in the organism, and in this way it affects higher pH levels in the kidneys. An alkaline environment acts as an inhibitor/preventer for the formation of all types of stones.
The balance of acids and bases is of exceptional importance to the metabolic process. Even normal cellular metabolism requires a balance of acids and bases. The condition of proteins, the structure of cell parts, the permeability of membranes, the functioning of enzymes and hormones, the distribution of electrolytes and the structure of connective tissue... all these depend on this balance.
One of the ways an organism’s acid–base levels are measured is by measuring blood pH; in healthy people, blood has a pH of 7.4. If, due to illness, the pH value falls below 7.37, problems related to metabolism occur immediately due to acidosis; if the pH value rises above 7.44, problems occur do to alkalosis. Every cell fluid is known to have its own pH value (for example, stomach fluid: 1.2-3; saliva: 7.0; pancreatic fluid: 8.0; urine: 5.6-7.0).
Although the organism has effective regulatory mechanisms (buffer systems in the blood, lungs, kidneys) for maintaining pH values within very narrow margins, a collapse of the acid–base homeostasis may occur. Problems related to acid–base homeostasis can occur because of illness (diabetes, hyperaldosteronism, chronic kidney failure, alcohol poisoning, hypokalemia, pulmonary oedema and certain other illnesses), or as a result of taking certain medicines, infections or an inadequate diet (obesity).
The acid–base homeostasis is one of the foundations of a healthy life
The predominant opinion of modern medicine (which varies from country to country) is that food does not affect acid–base homeostasis in the body. However, studies have shown that today, imbalances are most often the result of overburdening the body with food which causes the increased production of acids in the body.
The body has its own mechanisms for neutralising excess acids. The capacity of these mechanisms is limited, and their effectiveness depends on the amount of processed and “empty” food, animal proteins and concentrated carbohydrates consumed.
It may therefore happen that the organism is not capable of excreting all the acids temporarily deposited in the intercellular space, which leads to an acid burden on tissue and organs. The body loses base minerals and attempts to temporarily store the excess acids and toxic matter in the intercellular space and in the joints. Because the organism is overburdened, the temporary deposits become permanent, and this affects all of the body’s metabolic processes.
The effects of chronic acidosis include: a deficiency of certain minerals, burn-out syndrome, sleep problems, digestive problems, problems with concentration, muscle spasms, diarrhoea, headaches, nervousness and a number of other problems. An extended state of excess acids in the body could lead to osteoporosis, certain types of kidney stones, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory/degenerative changes in the motor system, gout, type 2 diabetes, increased uric acid, allergies, dentine (tooth) damage, effects on the autonomic nervous system and a number of other illnesses.
The acidification of bodily fluids leads to changes in the properties of red blood cells. They become less elastic and deformed and lose their ability to change their outer form. That’s why they have difficulty travelling through the capillaries; they stick together, forming blockages. The viscosity of blood is thus reduced, as is the local delivery of oxygen to tissue and vital organs (the heart and brain).
The role of hydrogen carbonate ions
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, a powerful base, plays an important role in maintaining this balance. It serves to neutralise excess acid and is active in the formation of all digestive juices of the so-called basophile organs – the liver, the gall bladder, the pancreas gland and the digestive glands of the small and large intestine.
Donat Mg natural mineral water contains large amounts of hydrogen carbonate ions and the basic mineral magnesium, which is why it effectively helps maintain acid–base homeostasis.
During a three-week treatment regime at the Rogaška Spa, the blood pressure of individuals suffering from hypertension was monitored daily. It was found to have been lowered significantly. They also looked at blood pressure in conjunction with Donat Mg: blood pressure was measured before drinking 0.5 l of Donat Mg on an empty stomach, then half an hour and an hour after drinking. The blood pressure of patients with normal blood pressure remained the same, while the blood pressure of patients with high blood pressure was found to be lower.
What is stress?
- A state of mental or emotional imbalance
- A state in which the body prepares for “fight or flight”
- The body begins producing adequate hormones and defence enzymes
- The body is in a constant state of agitation and restlessness
- Stress can be triggered by an event
- Stress can be a way of responding to things that occur in our daily lives – in other words, we can be under stress for an extended period of time without ever being aware of it (we blame the “bad day we’ve been having”, the weather, others, circumstances, etc.)
The human immune system
- The immune system is a very effective military machine in the human body. It doesn’t negotiate or compromise, it doesn’t bargain, it doesn’t take hostages and it never sleeps. If it ever took a break we’d be dead.
- It is constantly in contact with bacteria, fungi and parasites which are invisible to the human eye, but which would like to make our bodies their home.
- Over a million bacteria can be found on every square centimetre of freshly washed human skin.
The immune system’s defences are immune cells, which are formed in the following organs:
- The thymus
- The spleen
- The lymph nodes
- Bone marrow
These organs produce white blood cells or leukocytes which see to our body’s defences.
Types of white blood cells
- Neutrophil granulocytes – these cells make up 60% to 70% of white blood cells; they are the first to arrive at the scene of the accident and attempt to remove the invader, eating it up and dying in the process. They also eat themselves, clearing up disorder behind the front lines. Puss is the result of this battle. They feed by wrapping their bodies around the food (bacteria) and swallowing it, so to speak. They are constantly circulating in the blood.
- Macrophages – these cells are larger and slower than neutrophil granulocytes. They travel around the body, and when a chemical element alerts them that there’s a battle nearby, they rush to the scene. They eat bacteria as if they were hamburgers. They eat one, step aside, and then come back for another. They cleanse the body, eat puss, and remove particles of dust, pollen, tar and toxins from the lungs.
- Natural killer cells – these cells keep in check any cells in the body that are not behaving like they should – that are dividing too much, changing – by simply killing them.
- T cells – these cells carry chemical “swords”; they charge right at the enemy and destroy it. They specialise in viruses. They reproduce themselves to quickly destroy the enemy. There are also suppressor T cells and T helper cells.
- K cells – these cells operate from afar; when they recognise an enemy, they change into a plasma cell and begin emitting y-shaped antibodies in numbers proportionate to the size of the enemy. The plasma cell multiplies or copies itself to create more antibodies.
These are the basic cells of our body’s defences. But they are not alone: phagocytes, the central nervous system, various hormones, complexes, enzymes, the skin, lymphocytes, mast cells and transmitters also take part in our body’s defences.
What is the connection between the immune system and stress?
- The field of our mental health is closely connected to responses in our bodies
- Hormones are released from the adrenal glands – corticosteroids – and our immunity declines
- The hormone vasopressin is released in larger quantities, which slows the movement of antibodies
- Feelings have an impact on illness and death, that is, the immune system
What causes stress?
- Bad luck
- The fast pace of modern life – the feeling that we “don’t have time”, that we “can’t”, that we don’t know “if it’s right”, that we “have to”, that we “want to, but can’t”, that “this is too much”
The effects of stress – effects on the body
Stress affects our physical bodies and mental health
- Chronic headaches
- Tightness in certain muscles (back and shoulder muscles)
- Skin reactions
- The development of allergies
- Nervousness, irritability
- Lack of concentration, difficulty remembering things
- Depression, dissatisfaction
- Vulnerability to illness, weakened immune resistance
The wrong way to react to stress?
Emotional and mental reactions:
- Thinking “what’s going to happen tomorrow/in the future?”
- Inability to look at the problem from a positive angle, drowning in negativity
- Holding grudges, being unable to forgive or accept things
- Giving in to fate, depression
Activities that are the result of wrong reactions to stress:
- Loss of appetite
- An overwhelming need for food
- Physical passivity
- Excessive sexual activity or exercise
How do our organs respond?
The digestive tract:
- Inflammation of the stomach
- Corrosion in the stomach and duodenum
- Caustic inflammation of the large intestine
- Irritability of the colon
- Mental and emotional problems
Hair and skin:
- Skin diseases – eczema, psoriasis
- Asthma attacks
- Difficulty breathing
- Angina pectoris attacks
- Heart problems, arrhythmia
- Irritability, frequent urination
- Amenorrhea – missing one’s period in women
- Impotence and premature ejaculation in men
- A diet that does not burden the body and that covers our greater need for vitamins (A, C, E, B vitamin groups) and minerals (Fe, Ca, Se, Mg, Cu, Zn) – vegetables, fruit and grains.
- High calorie foods are toxic to our immune system
- Relaxation – anything that helps us relax
- Meditation, autogenic training, yoga, tai chi chuan, etc.
- Sauna, massages, baths
- Art, theatre, opera, ballet, music
Is there a natural medicine that could help with our nerves?
- Yes, there is. It’s magnesium, the anti-stress mineral
- Magnesium takes part in the body’s immune reactions in a number of ways: as a co-factor in immunoglobulin synthesis, as a co-factor in immune cell accumulation (T and B lymphocytes, for example), as a co-factor in antibody-dependent cytoxicity, as a co-factor in the bonding of IgM-immunoglobulins to lymphocytes, as a co-factor in macrophage response to lymphokines, as a co-factor in the bonding of substance P to lymphoblasts and as a co-factor in the bonding of antigen to macrophages
- It protects our heart from being overburdened due to stress
- It prevents muscle spasms
- Has an effect on electrolyte balance
- Required for normal metabolism
- Required for normal functioning of the nervous system, that is, for the transmission of nerve impulses
Where is it most accessible? In Donat Mg natural mineral water.
Just 2 glasses a day cover the body’s daily magnesium requirement. Drink it cold before meals, half an hour before food or two hours after food. It should never be drunk during a meal, as this weakens absorption.
Signs of a magnesium deficiency
The amount of an element as important as magnesium is carefully regulated in our bodies. If cells begin to lack magnesium, the body replaces it from its own stores – from the bones and the liver. If the magnesium lost is greater than that replaced, the symptoms of a deficiency appear. A severe deficiency occurs when the body is no longer capable of replacing magnesium from its own stores. A magnesium deficiency is often accompanied by a deficiency of potassium and phosphate, and in extreme cases also by a calcium deficiency.
Severe cases of magnesium deficiency are rare.
General symptoms: constipation, loss of appetite, generally not feeling well, tiredness, rapid exhaustion, muscle spasms, tingling sensations, irritability, sleep disorders, headaches, poor concentration and psychological changes.
- Apathy, depression, memory and concentration problems
- Severe deficiencies can result in confusion, hallucinations, paranoid notions and even coma
- Muscle fasciculation (twitching), ringing in the ears
- Severe deficiencies can result in tremors, muscle spasms, weakness in the muscles, ataxic nistagmus and tetany
- Loss of appetite, stomach pains, diarrhoea or constipation
- Supraventricular tachycardia (problems with heart rhythm) and ventricular extrasystoles
- Ventricular tachycardia or even ventricular fibrillation in cases of more serious deficiencies
What are the possible causes of a magnesium deficiency?
Our diets contain less magnesium than they once did. Aside from factors related to illness, the culprit behind a deficiency is most often poor nutritional habits. Our everyday diets usually include too few foods that contain enough magnesium – almonds, soy flour, roasted peanuts, beans, cocoa, hazelnuts, walnuts, etc. People avoid these foods because of weight-loss diets.
Modern food cultivation methods that rely on artificial potassium- and nitrogen-based fertilisers deplete the soil, which causes a lack of magnesium in the soil. Accordingly, there is less and less magnesium in the foods we eat. Additionally, modern production methods for sugar, grains and salt remove over 80% of the magnesium and other trace elements these foods contain.
38% to 67% of the magnesium in foods is lost during cooking, up to 38% is lost during refrigeration, and up to 99% is lost in the refining process.
A general magnesium deficiency can be observed in areas where the soil composition is naturally lacking in magnesium, as a result of which there is less magnesium in the drinking water and food.
Causes of magnesium deficiency:
- Losing weight with a one-sided diet
- Greasy foods
- Improper nutritional habits (lots of sweets and foods made from white flour, lots of cooked and baked foods)
- Foods very rich in calcium, or a lack of vitamins B1, B2 and B6
- Alcoholism, smoking, too many phosphate-rich foods
- Tube and intravenous feeding (for extended periods of time)
- Inadequate magnesium absorption or excessive magnesium loss due to bowel resection, laxative use, inflammatory bowel diseases with diarrhoea (Crohn’s disease and ulcerous colitis)
- Endocrine-related causes include diabetes, certain diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid and diseases of the kidneys and adrenal gland
- The use of diuretics and certain antibiotics
- Extreme sports, pregnancy, nursing, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and certain other chronic illnesses
- Stressful situations
Magnesium and the human body
- Scientists have called magnesium the anti-stress mineral and a balsam for the nerves and muscles. Magnesium is as essential a part of chlorophyll molecules as iron is of haemoglobin molecules. Our body’s daily magnesium requirement is between 12.3 and 20.6 mmol (300 to 500 mg). The body absorbs 24% to 75% of its magnesium from food, depending on the amount of magnesium in the body and the type of food. It extracts more if it is lacking in magnesium.
- In terms of its importance as an intercellular mineral, magnesium is second only to potassium.
- The body of an adult contains 864 to 1152 mmol (21 to 28 grams) of magnesium. 67% of all the magnesium in the body is deposited in the bones. Magnesium is an integral part of blood plasma. It can be found in the skeletal muscles, in the heart muscle, in the nervous system and in large amounts in the liver. Around 80% of serum magnesium is ionised and diffused; the remainder is bound to proteins.
- Magnesium enables over 300 different vital functions in our organism. It regulates the central nervous and muscle systems. It enables the normal transmission of impulses through nerve tissue.
- It is a very important catalyst of many enzyme systems.
- Without magnesium, carbohydrates, proteins and fats cannot be metabolised.
- It stabilises thrombocytes (prevents them from clumping). It is a preventive factor in thrombosis.
- It works to prevent heart attacks (by lowering the amount of fat in the blood), prevents arrhythmia and strengthens the heart muscle.
- It prevents the formation of kidney stones.
- It reduces the toxicity of a number of substances in the liver and speeds up liver regeneration.
- It has a favourable effect on the pancreas and the secretion of pancreatic juices.
- It works as a natural means for regulating digestion, which is why it also helps with constipation.
- It has a special role in gynaecology and natal medicine, as magnesium deficiency could be a factor in premature birth. It is used to treat certain complications during pregnancy and child birth.
- It affects male fertility, as it is one of the most important elements in the head of spermatozoa. If their metabolisation of magnesium is disrupted of if they have too little magnesium, their propulsion stops. They simply become paralysed.
In view of our modern lifestyle, which bombards us with dangerous emissions, ozone, tobacco smoke and canned and refined foods, it is also necessary to point out the antioxidant functions of magnesium. It protects cells from damage. A number of substances can be converted in the body into dangerous free radicals, small molecules that damage cells. A healthy body has at its disposal a number of protective mechanisms, but the frequency of early onset cancer, cardiovascular diseases and degenerative diseases would seem to indicate that these mechanisms aren’t always as effective as we’d like.
The body needs magnesium and most other minerals and vitamins every day. The body is a spendthrift when it comes to magnesium: the intestine absorbs only a part of the magnesium in the food we eat, usually no more than 30%; it gets rid of the rest in the form of stool. The kidneys see to more precise regulation by excreting magnesium in the urine.
Experts who have conducted studies on the subject have found that today, even otherwise healthy people suffer from a magnesium deficiency. More frequently than an outright deficiency, we encounter a hidden one, wherein a person’s daily intake of magnesium is around 15% lower than it should be. Analyses conducted in Germany have shown that a magnesium deficiency occurs in 40% of the population over the age of 18 and in 85% of people recovering from a heart attack. In France, 25% of the population over the age of 18 suffers from a lack of magnesium. Unfortunately, data of this kind is not available for Slovenia.
What can we do to prevent a magnesium deficiency?
We need between 300 and 500 mg of magnesium a day, which means that drinking 3 to 4 glasses of Donat Mg mineral water is sufficient. Drink it at room temperature and before meals. Magnesium absorbs better when not mixed with food.
Magnesium content in foods (mg Mg / 100 g)
||chicken, white meat
||condensed milk (10 % fat)
||white bread, rice